WeatherMichigan.com - Michigan's Most Comprehensive Internet Weather Resource!
 WeatherMichigan.com - Michigan's Most Comprehensive Internet Weather Resource!
 
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Assessment Images
Additional Assessment Images
Additional Radar Sources
NWS Text Data
Surface Analysis
Flooding
Upper Air Analysis
Severe Weather Indices
Jet Stream Analysis
NIU Storm Machine
Soundings
Profilers
Analysis & Forecast Models
Michigan Winter
Weather Images

St. Ignace, Michigan - Mackinac Bridge - MDOT

MACKINAC BRIDGE LIVE

 You know the old saying, "If you don't like the weather in Michigan, wait five minutes..."  Staying on top of Michigan's dynamic weather conditions can be a challenge. That's why this site was originally developed, as a means of keeping emergency managers and storm spotters abreast of the current and projected weather situation.

Narrowed in scope for West Michigan, our comprehensive coverage includes a variety of local, regional, and national radars, satellite images, and current upper air and surface products. Surface data includes temps, moisture, pressure and winds. Upper air data includes temps and humidity, jet stream analysis, and a variety of severe weather indices. The latest watches and warnings, current and forecast severe weather outlooks, and links to related data are also available here.

 MICHIGAN WEATHER WATCH
 WEATHER ADVISORIES
Weather Channel
Texas A&M Univ
AWS WeatherNet
Weather 2000
View All
Are You StormReady? Click here for more information!
Real-Time Michigan Weather Advisories From ACCUWEATHER

 THUNDERSTORM FORECAST

Thunderstorm Forecast From TWC

Current Grand Rapids Area Assessment Images At A Glance

GRR NEXRAD Loop

Animated Real-Time Grand Rapids NEXRAD Radar From Weather Underground
Latest Static Image

Michigan NEXRAD Radar

Michigan NEXRAD Radar From Weather Underground
Animated Image

Grand Rapids Webcam

Grand Rapids Webcam From WWMT Television
SW Michigan Webcams

SPC Day 1 Convective Outlook

1-Day Convective Outlook From SPC
SPC Day 2 Convective Outlook

National StormWatch

National STORMWATCH From SPC
SPC US Watch/Warning Display

North Central Region Surface Map

Current Regional Surface Composite From WeatherUnderground
Animated Image

NE Region Lightning Strikes

NE Region Lightning Strikes From AccuWeather
Michigan Lightning Strikes

North Central Region Surface Map

Regional Surface Map From TWC
Midwest Region Surface Map

Regional Satellite Water Vapor

North Central Color Water Vapor Satellite From AccuWeather
Animated Image

Regional NEXRAD Radar

Regional Radar From MyWeather
Animated Image

Regional Infrared Satellite

Regional Satellite From MyWeather
Animated Image

Michigan NEXRAD Radar

Michigan Extended Base Reflectivity Radar From AccuWeather
Animated Image

Michigan Infrared Satellite

Michigan Infrared Satellite From AccuWeather
Animated Image

North Central Region Temps

Current Regional Temps From WeatherUnderground
PSU Regional Temps

North Central Region Dew Point Temps

Current Regional Dewpoints From WeatherUnderground
PSU Regional Relative Humidity

North Central Region Winds

Current Regional Winds From WeatherUnderground
PSU Regional Winds
 

National Satellite Surface Composite Map

Surface Composite From Unisys
Animated Image

Grand Rapids NWS NEXRAD Base Reflectivity Radar

NWS Doppler Radar - Base Reflectivity - Grand Rapids-Muskegon, MI From NWS

 UPDATE IMAGES BY PUSHING "F5" OR "SHIFT/REFRESH" 

Additional Assessment Images
DISPLAY ALL GRAND RAPIDS AREA
ASSESSMENT IMAGES
1-Day Convective Outlook - SPC
2-Day Convective Outlook - SPC
Regional StormWatch - Earthwatch
Jet Stream Today - AccuWeather
Northeast US Surface Map - TWC
Northeast US Lightning Strikes - TWC
National Surface Map - TWC
National Surface Map - Unisys
Current Systems & Jet Stream
- The Weather Network
US Midday Forecast - TWC
US Evening Forecast - TWC
US Morning Forecast - TWC
Regional Lightning Strikes
- SormTracker
Atmosphere Composite - OSU
Surface Dew Point Temps - Unisys
SWEAT Index - OSU
Vertical Total Totals Index - OSU
MORE ASSESSMENT IMAGE DISPLAYS
ALL SURFACE TEMPS Images
ALL SURFACE PRESSURE Images
ALL SURFACE MOISTURE Images
ALL AIR TEMPS & HUMIDITY Images
ALL UPPER AIR INDICES Images
ALL JET STREAM ANALYSIS IMAGES
ALL TV RADAR Images (Radar 1)
ALL OTHER RADAR Images (Radar 2)
DISPLAY ALL GRAND RAPIDS AREA
RADAR/SATELLITE IMAGES
Green Bay Dual Doppler WGBA
Milwaukee Doppler 6000 - WITI
Milwaukee Live Doppler - WTMJ
Grand Rapids Live Doppler - WZZM
Grand Rapids Live Doppler - WOOD
Kalamazoo Live Doppler - WWMT
Kalamazoo Live Doppler - WLAJ
South Bend Live Doppler - WNDU
Lansing Live Doppler - WLNS
Saginaw Live Doppler - WNEM
Michigan NEXRAD - AccuWeather
Michigan NEXRAD Loop - AccuWeather
Michigan Enhanced Infrared Satellite
- AccuWeather
Michigan Enhanced Infrared Sat Loop
- AccuWeather
Mich Radar/Satellite Composite
- AccuWeather
Michigan Radar/Satellite Loop
- AccuWeather
N Central US NEXRAD - AccuWeather
NC US NEXRAD Loop - AccuWeather
Regional Color Water Vapor Sat
- AccuWeather
Regional Water Vapor Sat Loop
- AccuWeather
Regional Radar - MyWeather
Regional Radar Loop - MyWeather
Regional IR Satellite- MyWeather
Regional IR Satellite Loop- MyWeather
Northeast US Radar - TWC
Northeast US Radar Loop - TWC
Northeast US Satellite - TWC
Northeast US Satellite Loop - TWC
Latest Infrared Satellite - UWisc
SEVEN-DAY FORECAST IMAGES
DISPLAY ALL
SEVEN-DAY FORECAST IMAGES
Day

Conditions

Monday Weather Jet Stream
Tuesday Weather Jet Stream
Wednesday Weather Jet Stream
Thursday Weather Jet Stream
Friday Weather Jet Stream
Saturday Weather Jet Stream
Sunday Weather Jet Stream
DISPLAY ALL
SEVEN-DAY TEMP IMAGES
Day

Temperature

One High Low
Two High Low
Three High Low
Four High Low
Five High Low
Six High Low
Seven High Low

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Additional Radar Sources
National Animated Radar - KGAN Rob's Live Weather Radar Page
NC Regional Animated Radar - KGAN NEXRAD Radar Tutorial - UIUC
MICHIGAN REGION DOPPLER RADAR SITES - NWS
MARQUETTE, MI GREEN BAY, WI
GAYLORD, MI MILWAUKEE, WI
GRAND RAPIDS, MI CHICAGO, IL
DETROIT, MI NORTH WEBSTER, IN
MONSTER MICHIGAN REGIONAL DOPPLER RADAR IMAGES - UNISYS & Freese Notis
STATIC ANIMATED
MICHIGAN REGIONAL NEXRAD IMAGES - Intellicast
UPPER PENINSULA NORTHERN LOWER SW LOWER SE LOWER
DETROIT - DTW
NEXRAD 1 NEXRAD 2 RADAR SUMMARY LOOP PRECIP
GRAND RAPIDS - GRR
NEXRAD 1 NEXRAD 2 RADAR SUMMARY LOOP PRECIP
TRAVERSE CITY - TVC (APX)
NEXRAD 1 NEXRAD 2 RADAR SUMMARY LOOP PRECIP
MARQUETTE - MQT
NEXRAD 1 NEXRAD 2 RADAR SUMMARY LOOP PRECIP
INDIANA   -  SOUTH BEND - SBN (IWX)
NEXRAD 1 NEXRAD 2 RADAR SUMMARY LOOP PRECIP
WISCONSIN   -  MILWAUKEE - MKE
NEXRAD 1 NEXRAD 2 RADAR SUMMARY LOOP PRECIP
WISCONSIN   -  GREEN BAY - GRB
NEXRAD 1 NEXRAD 2 RADAR SUMMARY LOOP PRECIP

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Severe Weather & Related Information (Text-based)
MICHIGAN REGION NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICES
MARQUETTE, MI GREEN BAY, WI
GAYLORD, MI MILWAUKEE, WI
GRAND RAPIDS, MI CHICAGO, IL
DETROIT, MI NORTH WEBSTER, IN
CENTRAL REGION HEADQUARTERS MIDWEST REGIONAL CLIMATE CENTER
The Day 1 Convective Outlook, Day 2 Convective Outlook and Day 3 Convective Outlook are guidance products issued by the SPC Operational Branch in Norman, Oklahoma. The Day 1 outlook outlines areas in the continental United States where severe thunderstorms may develop during the next 6 to 73 hours. The Day 1 Convective Outlook is issued 5 times daily: at 06Z (the initial day-1 outlook, valid 12Z that day until 12Z the following day), 13Z and 1630Z (the "morning updates," valid until 12Z the next day), 20Z (the "afternoon update," valid until 12Z the next day), and the 01Z (the "evening update," valid until 12Z the following day).
GRAND RAPIDS (GRR) NWS PRODUCTS
WARNINGS
Special Marine Warning - GRR
Severe Thunderstorm Warning - GRR
Tornado Warning - GRR
Flood Warning - GRR
Flash Flood Warning - GRR
Red Flag (Fire) Warning - GRR
Shelter In Place Warning - GRR
Civil Danger Warning - GRR
Earthquake Warning - GRR
STATEMENTS
Civil Emergency Message - GRR
Local Area Emergency - GRR
Urgent Winter Weather Message - GRR
Urgent Winter Weather Message - COD
Urgent Non-Precip WX Message - GRR
Urgent Non-Precip WX Message - COD
Special Weather Statement - GRR
Special Weather Statement - COD
Severe Weather Statement - GRR
Severe Weather Statement - COD
River Statement - GRR
Flood Statement - GRR
Flood Statement - GRR
Flash Flood Statement - GRR
Flash Flood Statement - COD
Flash Flood Watch - GRR
Severe Tstorm Watch - Michigan - DTX
Lakeshore Hazard Message - GRR
Watch County Notification - GRR
HAZARDOUS WEATHER
Hazardous Weather Outlook - GRR
Hazardous Weather Outlook - COD
Fire Weather Outlook - GRR
Local Storm Report - GRR
Local Storm Report - COD
Earthquake Information Report - GRR
MARINE
Nearshore Marine Forecast - GRR
Nearshore Marine Forecast - COD
Great Lakes Port Forecast - GRR
Open Waters Fcst - Lake Michigan - LOT
Marine Weather Discussion - GRR
Marine Weather Statement - GRR
Lake Michigan Beach Reports - GRR
Coast Guard Report - GRR
OBSERVATIONS
Current Observations - GRR
Public Information Statement - GRR
Public Information Statement - COD
Michigan Temp & Precip Table - GRR
Regional Temp & Precip Table - COD
Air Quality Statement - GRR
Record Report - GRR
FORECASTS
Area Forecast Discussion - GRR
Area Forecast Discussion - COD
Zone Forecasts - GRR
Zone Forecasts - COD
Short Term Forecast - GRR
Short Term Forecast - COD
Fire Weather Forecast - GRR
Fire Weather Forecast Matrices - GRR
Point Forecast Matrices - GRR
Point Forecast Matrices - COD
Area Forecast Matrices - GRR
Coded City Forecast - GRR
CLIMATOLOGY
Daily Climate Summary - GRR
Daily Climate Summary - COD
Preliminary Climate Data - Grand Rpds - GRR
Preliminary Climate Data - Muskegon - GRR
Preliminary Climate Data - Lansing - GRR
Monthly Climate Summary - GRR
HYDROLOGY
Daily River & Lake Summary - GRR
River Summary - GRR
River Summary - COD
River Outlook - GRR
River Outlook - COD
NATIONAL CONVECTIVE STATEMENTS
Day1 Latest Convective Outlook  - SPC
Day1 Initial Convective Outlook  - SPC
Day2 Convective Outlook  - SPC
Day3 Convective Outlook  - SPC
6-Hour Thunderstorm Outlook- SPC
US Convective Weather Forecast - AWC
Current Mesoscale Discussions - SPC
Current US Weather Watches - SPC
Valid US Watches, Warnings & Advisory Display - SPC
Fire Weather Outlook - Day1 - SPC
Fire Weather Outlook - Day2 - SPC
Storm Reports - Last Hour - SPC
Storm Reports - Today - SPC
Storm Report Map - Today - SPC
Storm Reports - Yesterday - SPC
Current Stats For Tornadoes - SPC
MICHIGAN NWS PRODUCTS
Michigan Hourly Wx Roundup - DTX
Michigan Temp & Precip Table - APX
State Temp & Precip Table - OSU
State Forecast For Michigan - DTX
State Forecast for Michigan - NWS
State Forecast for Michigan - OSU
Zone Forecast (W & Central U.P.) - OSU
Zone Forecast (E U.P. & N L.P.) - OSU
Zone Forecast (SE L.P.) - OSU
Zone Forecast (SW L.P.) - OSU
Zone Forecast (Extreme SW L.P.) - OSU
Severe Tstorm Watch - Michigan - DTX
Special Weather Statements - NWS
Watches & Warnings - NWS
Public Information Statements - NWS
Hydrological Data (SE L.P.) - OSU
Hydrological Data (SW L.P.) - OSU
Hydrological Data (E U.P. & N L.P.) - OSU
Hydrological Data (W & Cen. U.P.) - OSU
Michigan River Conditions - USGS
Great Lakes Marine WX Broadcast 1
(Superior, Michigan, Huron)
- CLE
Great Lakes Marine WX Broadcast 2
(St. Clair, Erie, Ontario)
- CLE
Great Lakes Marine Alert Message - CLE
Great Lakes Storm Summary - CLE
Great Lakes Freeze-Up Outlook - CLE
Great Lakes Ice Forecast - CLE
Great Lakes Water Levels - DTX
Great Lakes Water Levels - OSU
West Great Lakes Buoy Data - NOAA
East Great Lakes Buoy Data - NOAA
Great Lakes Buoy Data Map - PSU
Great Lakes Surface Temps - MSU
MICHIGAN STATE POLICE REPORTS
Go To The Michigan State Police Website MSP Road Conditions Report
Quick Links To GRR Zone Products
Allegan Barry
Calhoun Clare
Clinton Eaton
Gratiot Ingham
Ionia Isabella
Jackson Kalamazoo
Kent Lake
Mason Mecosta
Montcalm Muskegon
Newaygo Oceana
Osceola Ottawa
Van Buren

CURRENT WEATHER OBSERVATIONS - MICHIGAN AWOS/ASOS INSTALLATIONS
Automated Weather Observation Systems (AWOS) and Automated Surface Observation Systems (ASOS) are installed at airports across the state. They provide weather observations 24 hours a day without human involvement. The systems report wind speed and direction, ceiling, visibility, temperature, dew point, barometric pressure, and any recorded remarks. Those systems with "present weather" sensors also report cloud cover and height, and precipitation type. State-owned AWOS systems are installed and maintained by the Bureau of Aeronautics in cooperation with each airport. For additional information and details about each Michigan AWOS/ASOS site, including frequency and telephone access, please click here.

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Surface Analysis
MICHIGAN REGIONAL SURFACE CONDITIONS & WEATHER DATA PAGE - UCAR
GIANT Michigan Surface Conditions Image UCAR Michigan Weather Data Page
SURFACE TEMPERATURES
DISPLAY ALL SURFACE
TEMPERATURES IMAGES
Surface Temperatures - UNISYS
Midwest Surface Temperatures
- Station Plots - OSU
Surface Heat Index - UNISYS
  Convective Temperatures
This is the temperature at which convection (i.e. clouds) will form. During the early summer when the atmosphere is 'capped', if the surface temperature gets higher than this level, then clouds (and perhaps thunderstorms) will form.
60F=288K, 70F =294K, 80F=300K,
90F=305K, 100F=311K 
Convective Surface Temperatures
- NOAA

Current Wind Gusts From WNEM

SURFACE MOISTURE
DISPLAY ALL SURFACE
MOISTURE IMAGES
Surface Dew Point Temperatures - COD
Surface Dew Point Temperatures
- UCAR
Surface Dew Point Temperatures
- UNISYS
Surface Dew Point Temperatures - OSU
Moisture Convergence Contour
- UNISYS
SURFACE PRESSURE & WINDS
DISPLAY ALL SURFACE
PRESSURE & WINDS IMAGES
US Pressure/ Wind Analysis - OSU
Surface Frontal Positions
- NCEP & UNISYS
Three Hour Pressure Change Contour
- UNISYS
Surface Pressure Contour - UNISYS
Current Regional Surface Winds - PSU
Current US Surface Winds - PSU
Great Lakes Pressure & Wind - OSU
Current Michigan METAR Weather Observations - PSU
FLOODING FORECAST & THREATS - Earthsat
US Flood Risk Precip. Forecast Page US Flood Risk Precip. Forecast Map
US Flood Threat Page US Flood Threat Map
Upper Air Analysis

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UPPER AIR TEMPS & HUMIDITY
DISPLAY ALL UPPER AIR
TEMPS & HUMIDITY IMAGES
  Upper Air Temperatures
At 850 mb, used to see if the atmosphere is ripe for cloud and storm formation. Temps at this level should be colder than the surface. If it is warmer, inversion takes place causing smog and a very wimpy atmosphere.
Upper Air (850 mb) Temperatures
- UNISYS
850 mb Upper Air Composite (Heights & Temps) - UCAR
  Upper Air Humidity
Upper Air Humidity-Temperatures
- UCAR
Upper Air Humidity (850 mb) - OSU
  Precipitable Water
This is a contour plot of precipitable water in inches. The contour interval is .2 inches. Precipitable water reflects the amount of water contained in a vertical column above the surface if it were all precipitated out. This is a good indicator of how much rain or snow might fall as a result of a thunderstorm or low pressure system. To roughly figure your possible rainfall, find how much precipitable water you have overhead, multiply by your humidity (i.e. x .74), divide by 24 to get how much per hour, estimate how much actual time it will precipitate by looking at radar, then multiply by how many hours to get the total amount.
Precipitable Water Composite - UNISYS
Precipitable Water - OSU

WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT (Constant Pressure Plots)

850 mb
or about
5,000'
MSL
700 mb
or about
10,000
MSL
500 mb
or about
18,000"
MSL
300 mb
or about
30,000'
MSL
250 mb
or about
35,000'
MSL
200 mb
or about
38,500'
MSL
NCAR NCAR NCAR NCAR NCAR NCAR
OSU OSU OSU OSU OSU OSU
TEMPS/MOISTURE ALOFT
Four-panel plot at 925, 850, 700, and 500 mb - UCAR
RELATIVE VORTICITY
500 mb Relative Vorticity - OSU

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Severe Weather Indices
DISPLAY ALL UPPER AIR
INDICES IMAGES
 

Lifted Index
This is an index used to determine the stability of the lower half of the troposphere. The LI field shows instability in the atmosphere by lifting a parcel of air from the surface to 500 mb and comparing its temperature to that of the environment. Where LIs are less than 0, thunderstorms are possible. The lower the number, the more unstable the atmosphere is and as a result, the stronger the thunderstorms could become. Values of -4 or lower indicate areas where severe thunderstorms are possible. Values > 10 indicate areas of stable weather where skies are generally clear. The risk of severe weather activity is defined as follows:
LI > 2 No significant activity
0 < LI < 2 Showers probable, isolated thunderstorms possible
-2 < LI < 0 Thunderstorms probable
-4 < LI < -2 Severe thunderstorms possible
LI < -4 Severe thunderstorms probable, tornadoes possible

Lifted Index - OSU
Surface To 500 mb Lifted Index
- UNISYS
  Theta-E
Another instability tool. Ridges indicate unstable air.
Theta-E Plot - UCAR
 

K-Index
The K Index field shows instability in the atmosphere as it relates to the development of air mass thunderstorms. The KI is similar to Total Totals index except that it takes into account moist air at 700 mb contributing to air mass thunderstorm development. It is based on the 850 to 500 mb lapse rate plus 850 mb dewpoint minus the 700 mb dewpoint depression. It is defined as follows: K = T850 - T500 + Td850 - (T700 - Td700). Strong Springtime thunderstorms often require dry air at mid levels to cap the convection. On the other hand, summer air mass thunderstorms need a very moist atmosphere at mid levels to prevent evaporation through entrainment. Where KIs are greater than 35, air mass thunderstorms are likely. the higher the number, the higher the probability. Values < 10 indicate areas of stable weather where skies are generally clear. The risk of air mass thunderstorms is defined as follows:
K < 15 0% Air mass t-storm probability
15-20 <20% Air mass t-storm probability
21-25 20-40% Air mass t-storm prob.
26-30 40-60% Air mass t-storm prob.
31-35 60-80% Air mass t-storm prob.
36-40 80-90% Air mass t-storm prob.
K > 40 >90% Air mass t-storm probability

K-Index - UNISYS
K-Index - OSU
 

Showalter Index
This is an index used to determine the stability of the lower half of the troposphere. An air parcel is lifted from an initial position at 850 mb where localized low level influences are greatly reduced. It is lifted dry adiabatically to its LCL and then pseudo-adiabatically to 500 mb. The environmental temperature is then subtracted from the parcel temperature to obtain the value of the Showalter index. The risk of severe weather activity is defined as follows:
SI > 3 No significant activity
1 < SI < 3 Showers probable, isolated thunderstorms possible
-2 < SI < 1 Showers probable, isolated thunderstorms possible
-2 < SI < 1 Thunderstorms probable
-6 < SI < -2 Severe t-storms possible
SI < -6 Tornadoes possible

Showalter Index - OSU
 

Vertical Total Totals Index
A measure of the thunderstorm potential, according to the following scale and color fill scheme:
< 25 Thunderstorms unlikely
25-26 Scattered thunderstorms
27-30 Scattered t-storms/ few severe/ isolated tornadoes
31-32 Scattered-numerous t-storms/ few tornadoes
33-34 Numerous thunderstorms/ few tornadoes
> 34 Numerous t-storms/ scattered severe/scattered tornadoes

Vertical Total Totals Plot - OSU
 

Total Totals Index
The TT field shows instability in the atmosphere based on the lapse rate from 850 to 500 mb plus dewpoint at 850 mb: TT = T850 + Td850 - 2T500. Where TTs are greater than 45, thunderstorms are possible. The higher the number, the more unstable the atmosphere is and as a result, the stronger the thunderstorms could become. Values of 52 or higher indicate areas where severe thunderstorms are possible. Values < 40 indicate areas of stable weather where skies are generally clear. The risk of severe weather activity is defined as follows:
44-45 Isolated moderate thunderstorms
46-47 Scattered moderate/ few heavy thunderstorms
48-49 Scattered moderate/ few heavy / isolated severe thunderstorms
50-51 Scattered heavy/ few severe thunderstorms and isolated tornadoes
52-55 Scattered to numerous heavy/ few to scattered severe thunderstorm/ few tornadoes
> 55 Numerous heavy/ scattered severe thunderstorms and scattered tornadoes

Total Totals Index - OSU
Total Totals Index - UNISYS
 

SWEAT Index
S
evere Weather thrEAT - This is an United States Air Force index that takes into account thermal instability, low level moisture content, vertical wind shear and horizontal wind speeds. The risk of severe weather activity is defined as follows:
SW < 300 No activity expected
300 < SW < 400 Isolated moderate to heavy thunderstorms
400 < SW < 500 Severe thunderstorms and tornadoes probable
SW > 500 SW < 500 Severe thunderstorms and tornadoes probable
SW > 500 Severe thunderstorms and tornadoes likely

SWEAT Index - OSU
 

CAPE Index
Convective Available Potential Energy - 
Another instability tool. CAPE represents the amount of energy a parcel might have if it were lifted. Often this reflects the strength of updrafts within a thunderstorm. CAPE values of greater than 2000 represent enough energy to produce thunderstorms. A value greater than 3000 represents enough energy to produce strong thunderstorms. Values < 1000 denote a relatively stable atmosphere.
< 300  Very weak convection
300-1000  Weak
1000-2500  Moderate
2500-3000  Strong
3000+  Wizard of Oz

CAPE Plot - OSU
National CAPE Contour - UNISYS
 

Helicity Contour
This is a contour plot of the amount of storm relative rotation/shear in the atmosphere. Helicity is used to indicate where rotation/shear is high enough to allow thunderstorms to organize into severe or supercell storms. In the lack of helicity, storms develop vertically and the precipitation will snuff out the updraft killing the thunderstorm. Severe storms need helicity to maintain an organized structure allowing the storm to develop to severe limits. A value of 400-500 is often needed to produce severe storms. Often this is used in conjunction with CAPE to determine severe storm location.

National Helicity Contour - UNISYS
 

Cross Totals Index
A measure of the frequency and intensity of thunderstorms:
<= 17 Thunderstorms unlikely
18-19 Isolated thunderstorms
20-21 Scattered thunderstorms
22-23 Scattered t-storm/ isolated severe
24-25 Scattered thunderstorms/ few severe/ isolated tornadoes
26-29 Scattered to numerous t-storms/ few severe/ few tornadoes
>= 30 Numerous t-storms/scattered severe/scattered tornadoes

Cross Totals Plot - OSU
  Energy Index
This index compares the energy contained in the atmosphere at 850 and 500 mb to its stability. The risk of severe weather activity is defined as follows:
EI > 0 No activity expected
-2 < EI < 0 Isolated severe t-storms
EI < -2 Severe thunderstorms probable, tornadoes possible
Energy Index - OSU (Currently Unavailable)

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Jet Stream Analysis
DISPLAY ALL JET STREAM
ANALYSIS IMAGES
Jet Stream Observed & Forecast
- WeatherBank
Upper Air 250 mb Winds - OSU
300 mb Jet Stream Analysis - SFSU
Mid-Level (850 mb - 10K ft) Winds
- OSU
Current 300mb (30K ft) Streams/Isotachs
- USAF
Mid-Level (850 mb - 10K ft) Winds
- OSU
NC Regional Jet Stream
- Weather Underground
NC Regional Jet Stream Loop
- Weather Underground

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The NIU Storm Machine
Providing satellite, radar and data analyses, as well as model forecasts from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational ETA, NGM or Aviation (AVN) models.
Surface Plotting Machine Surface Contouring Machine
Upper Air Contouring Machine Forecast Model Contouring Machine
Radar Machine Satellite Machine
Sounding Machine (Text Output) Sounding Machine (Images)
Forecast Model Sounding Text Machine Forecast Model Sounding Image Machine
Profiler Text Machine Profiler Image Machine

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Soundings
SKEW-T DIAGRAMS
UCAR
DTX APX GRB MPX INL DVN ILX ILN
OSU
DTX APX GRB MPX INL DVN ILX ILN
UNISYS
DTX APX GRB MPX INL DVN ILX ILN
GOES SOUNDINGS PRODUCTS DATA - NOAA/NESDIS
Horizontal Soundings Fields TPW, LI, CAPE, and CINH fields. Full U.S., Pacific, and Regional displays
Archive of Soundings Fields 24 hour archive of TPW, LI, CAPE, 850mb Temp, 700mb Temp, and 500mb Temp fields (for various regions)
Vertical Sounding Profiles Hourly Skew-T diagrams for over 450 sites across the U.S., Mexico, Caribbean, W Atlantic, E Pacific, and S Canada (including 24hr archive)
Vertical Profile Loops 24 hour JAVA loops of Skew-T diagrams for all above mentioned 450 sites
Cross Sections Theta-E, Mixing Ratio, RH, and Wet Bulb cross sections for 18 selected pairs of end points
Cross Section Loops Theta-E, Mixing Ratio, RH, and Wet Bulb cross section loops for 18 selected pairs of end points
3-Hour Time Difference Fields TPW, LI, CAPE, and CINH fields showing 3 hour changes for various U.S. regional sectors
Colorized Soundings Imagery Colorized maps of various derived Soundings parameters over concatenated GOES-East and GOES-West sectors
Colorized Soundings Loops Colorized loops of various derived Soundings parameters over concatenated GOES-East and GOES-West sectors
PW Coverage and Adjustments Display showing latest GOES Soundings coverage with color coding showing GOES adjustments to first guess
Raw Soundings Files Binary format and McIDAS format Soundings data
Lake Effect Snow Support Hourly GOES Total Precipitable Water Estimates for Great Lakes Region (Seasonal)

Regional NWS Sounding Sites

Skew­T diagrams are derived using data collected by radiosondes, carried by balloon, and released twice each day (00 & 12 UTC) at more than 1000 sites worldwide. This thermodynamic diagram, or Skew­T/Log­P diagram, also known as a sounding, is a graph showing the vertical distribution of the temperature, dew point, wind direction, and wind speed of the radiosonde as it rises through the atmosphere (up an altitude of about 30 km or 100,000 feet) near the site where it was launched. For more information, check out these excellent guides to Skew-T's from OSU & NEMAS.

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Profilers
NPN WIND PROFILERS - UCAR
WDL BLR SLA WLC LTH WNC

Regional NWS Profiler Sites

It is very important to severe weather forecasting to know what the upper level winds are doing - much more often than the twice daily balloon soundings. Hourly upper air winds are available through displays of radar-derived winds. The winds are detected by a network of wind profilers - Doppler radars with stationary antennae, pointed straight upward - that can "see" which way the air is moving and how fast it's moving. The system is called a "profiler" because it gives air speed and direction data from near the surface to above the tropopause, thus it provides a vertical profile of the earth's atmosphere.

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Analysis & Forecast Models
GREAT LAKES AREA RUC MAPS - NOAA/FSL
Go To The Michigan Weather Center RUC MAPS PageFor additional Great Lakes area surface and upper air analysis graphics, visit our new RUC Analysis & Forecast page. The FSL RUC ANALYSIS & FORECAST MAPS (RUC - Rapid Update Cycle) is an operational atmospheric prediction system comprising primarily of a numerical forecast model and an analysis system to initialize that model. MAPS is the research counterpart to the RUC. The RUC has been developed to serve users needing short-range weather forecasts, including those in the US aviation community.
CURRENT 20km RUC MAPS CURRENT 20km RUC MAPS (Experimental)
ADDITIONAL NUMERICAL MODEL SOURCES
NOGAPS, AVN, MRF - US Navy NUMERICAL MODEL PAGE - OSU
MM5 MODEL - NOAA/NSSL MM5 MODEL - UCAR
DIFAX TIFF- NWS MODEL PAGE - UCAR
EARLY ETA 00Z - UCAR 12Z ETA - UCAR
CANADIAN Model (GEM) - EC CANADIAN Model (GEM) - UQuebec
EUROPEAN NAm Model - ECMWF EUROPEAN NAm Model (ECMWF) - Unisys

ETA MODEL - UCAR

Products Hour Valid
SFC MSLP 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
SFC TEMP 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
SFC DEWP 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
SFC CAPE/CIN 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
PCW/LI 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
PRCP NA 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
SREH 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
850mb WINDS 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
850mb TEMPS 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
700mb WINDS 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
700mb TEMPS 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
500mb WINDS 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
500mb TEMPS 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
250mb WINDS 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An
MOISTURE 00 06 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 An

RUC MODEL - UCAR

Products Hour Valid
SFC MLSP 00 03 06 09 12
SFC CAPE/CIN 00 03 06 09 12
850mb WINDS 00 03 06 09 12
850mb TEMP 00 03 06 09 12
700mb WINDS 00 03 06 09 12
700mb TEMP 00 03 06 09 12
500mb WINDS 00 03 06 09 12
500mb TEMP 00 03 06 09 12
250mb WINDS 00 03 06 09 12
MOISTURE 00 03 06 09 12

AVN/MRF MODEL - UCAR

Products Hour Valid
MSLP 60 72 4P
850mb WINDS 60 72 NA
700mb WINDS 60 72 NA
500 HEIGHTS NA NA 4P
500mb WINDS 60 72 4P
250mb WINDS 60 72 NA
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